RESEARCH SUGGESTS WHITE SLAVERY WAS MUCH MORE COMMON THAN PREVIOUSLY BELIEVED
- A new study suggests that a 1,000,000 or more European Christians were enslaved
- by Muslims in North Africa between 1530 and 1780
- a far greater number than had ever been estimated before.
In a new book, Robert Davis, professor of history at Ohio State University
- developed a unique methodology to calculate the number of white Christians,
--- who were enslaved along Africa’s Barbary Coast
- arriving at much higher slave population estimates than any previous studies had found
- Davis’s new estimates appear in the book:
--- "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy. 1500-1800"
--- (Palgrave Macmillan).
Most other accounts of slavery along the Barbary coast:
- didn’t try to estimate the total number of slaves, or
--- only looked at the number of slaves in particular cities
- Most previously estimated slave counts have thus tended to be in the thousands, or
--- at most in the tens of thousands
Davis, by contrast, has calculated that between 1,000,000 and 1,250,000 European Christians
- were captured and forced to work in North Africa from the 16th to 18th centuries
“Enslavement was a very real possibility for anyone
- who traveled in the Mediterranean, or
- who lived along the shores
- in places like Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, and
- even as far north as England and Iceland”
“Much of what has been written gives the impression that there were not many slaves
- and minimizes the impact, that slavery had on Europe”
- “Most accounts only look at slavery in one place, or only for a short period of time.
- But when you take a broader, longer view,
--- the massive scope of this slavery and its powerful impact become clear”
It is useful to compare this Mediterranean slavery to the Atlantic slave trade that brought black Africans to the Americas:
- over the course of 4 centuries, the Atlantic slave trade was much larger
--- about 10 to 12 million black Africans were brought to the Americas;
- but from 1500 to 1650, when trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy
- more white Christian slaves were probably taken to Barbary
--- than black African slaves to the Americas, according to Davis.
“Both the public & scholars tend to take as given the slavery's racial nature
- that only blacks have been slaves
- But that is not true”
- “We cannot think of slavery as something that only white people did to black people”
- during the time period religion & ethnicity determined - who became slaves - as much as race.
Impact of piracy
- Pirates (called corsairs) from cities along the Barbary Coast in north Africa
- cities such as Tunis and Algiers
- would raid ships in the Mediterranean and Atlantic as well as seaside villages
- to capture men, women and children
- The impact of these attacks were devastating:
--- France, England, and Spain each lost thousands of ships, and
--- long stretches of the Spanish and Italian coasts were completely abandoned by inhabitants;
- at its peak, the destruction & depopulation of some areas exceeded
- what European slavers would later inflict on the African interior.
Although hundreds of thousands of Christian slaves were taken from Mediterranean countries
- the effects of Muslim slave raids was felt much further away
--- e.g. through most of the 17th century the English lost at least 400 sailors a year to the slavers.
- Even Americans were not immune
--- e.g., one American slave reported that 130 other American seamen had been enslaved by the Algerians
--- in the Mediterranean and Atlantic just between 1785 and 1793.
The vast scope of slavery in North Africa has been ignored and minimized in large part
- because it is on no one’s agenda to discuss what happened.
- The enslavement of Europeans doesn’t fit the general theme of European world conquest and colonialism
- that is central to scholarship on the early modern era
- Many of the countries that were victims of slavery, such as France and Spain,
- would later conquer and colonize the areas of North Africa,
--- where their citizens were once held as slaves
1. Maybe because of this history, Western scholars have thought of the Europeans
--- primarily as “evil colonialists” & not as the victims they sometimes were
2. another reason that Mediterranean slavery has been ignored or minimized has been:
- there have not been good estimates of the total number of people enslaved
--- People of the time – both Europeans and the Barbary Coast slave owners
--- did not keep detailed, trustworthy records of the number of slaves;
--- in contrast, there are extensive records that document the number of Africans brought to the Americas as slaves.
Davis developed a new methodology to estimate the number of slaves along the Barbary Coast
- Davis found the best records available indicating:
--- how many slaves were at a particular location at a single time.
- He then estimated how many new slaves it would take to replace slaves
--- as they died, escaped or were ransomed.
- “The only way I could come up with hard numbers is to turn the whole problem upside down
- figure out how many slaves they would have to capture to maintain a certain level”
- “It is not the best way to make population estimates
- but it is the only way with the limited records available”
Putting together such sources of attrition as: deaths, escapes, ransomings, and conversions, he calculated
- that about 1/4-th of slaves had to be replaced each year, to keep the slave population stable
- as it apparently was between 1580 and 1680
- That meant: about 8,500 new slaves had to be captured each year
- Overall, this suggests nearly a 1,000,000 slaves would have been taken captive during this period
- Using the same methodology, Davis has estimated as many as 475,000 additional slaves were taken in the previous and following centuries
The result is that:
- between 1530 and 1780
- there were almost certainly 1 million &
- quite possibly as many as 1.25 million
- white, European Christians enslaved by the Muslims of the Barbary Coast
Research into the treatment of these slaves suggests that
- for most of them, their lives were every bit as difficult, as that of slaves in America.
- “As far as daily living conditions, the Mediterranean slaves certainly didn’t have it better”
- While African slaves did grueling labor on sugar and cotton plantations in the Americas
- European Christian slaves were often worked just as hard and as lethally:
--- in quarries,
--- in heavy construction, and above all,
--- rowing the corsair galleys themselves.
Davis said his findings suggest that this invisible slavery of European Christians deserves more attention from scholars
- “We have lost the sense of how large enslavement could loom
--- for those, who lived around the Mediterranean and
--- the threat they were under”
- “Slaves were still slaves, whether they are black or white, and
- whether they suffered in America or North Africa”.
_______________________ THE END ___________________________________
Contact Robert Davis: (614) 292-5324; Davis.email@example.com
Written by Jeff Grabmeier, (614) 292-8457; Grabmeier.firstname.lastname@example.org
БОНУС: О РАБСТВЕ
Black slave-owners in America: http://americancivilwar.com/authors/black_slaveowners.htm
Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Slavs": http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14042a.htm
Wiki, Saqaliba: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saqaliba
Robert C. Davis, "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, The Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800": http://www.amazon.co.uk/Christian-Slaves-Muslim-Masters-Mediterranean/dp/1403945519/ref=pd_sim_b_6/026-5260307-8545201
Robert Davis, "When Europeans Were Slaves": http://hojja-nusreddin.livejournal.com/1868418.html
Giles Milton, "White Gold: The Extraordinary Story of Thomas Pellow and North Africa's One Million European Slaves": http://www.amazon.co.uk/White-Gold-Giles-Milton/dp/0340794704/ref=pd_sim_b_2/026-5260307-8545201
Daniel J Vitkus, "Piracy, Slavery and Redemption: Barbary Captivity Narratives from Early Modern England": http://www.amazon.co.uk/Piracy-Slavery-Redemption-Captivity-Narratives/dp/0231119054/ref=pd_sim_b_2/026-5260307-8545201
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Было ли рабство только у христиан?: http://hojja-nusreddin.livejournal.com/2450114.html
О мифе про "историческую вину" белого человека за рабство: http://hojja-nusreddin.livejournal.com/1176438.html
Петр Хомяков, "Свои и Чужие": http://www.miroslavie.ru/library/hom/hom_0.htm
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Рахдониты - средневековые еврейские работорговцы: