The study of erfan
- was adopted too by some of the leading clerics of the 1-st half of the ХХth century,
- thus Shariat Sangalaji was taught erfan in Tehran by Mirza Hashem Eshkevari,
- Ruhollah Khomeini (1902–89) took classes in the same subject offered by Mirza Mohammad Ali Shahabadi (1875–1950) & Mirza Ali Akbar Hakim Yazdi (d. 1925).
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