Ходжа Н. (hojja_nusreddin) wrote,
Ходжа Н.
hojja_nusreddin

звезда Алькор и проверка остроты зрения

Две звезды Мицар и Алькор входят в парный астеризм «Конь и всадник», но эти эпитеты не являются переводом арабских названий звёзд, как часто ошибочно считают. Люди с хорошим зрением видят рядом с Мицаром ещё одну звезду, называемую Алькор.

Существует также легенда, что якобы в древнем Египте в элитные войска фараона набирали юношей, которые могли различать эти звезды. Это было доказательством, что зрение было достаточно острым. В версиях легенды фигурируют греческие лучники или индейские охотники.
Нет подтверждения реальности этих фактов. Кроме того, Мицар и Алькор легко различимы как отдельные звёзды даже при средней остроте зрения.
Есть гипoтеза, что в новое время Алькор сделался заметнее, чем в древности из-за увеличения углового расстояния от Мицара.
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The Arabs

- in the desert regarded it as a test of penetrating vision; and they were accustomed to oppose "Suhel to Suha / Canopus to Alcor" as occupying respectively the highest and lowest posts in the celestial hierarchy.
- "Al Sahja" was the rhythmical form of the usual "Suha"; and it appears as "al Khawwar / the Faint One", in an interesting list of Arabic star-names, published in Popular Astronomy for January, 1895, by Professor Robert H. West, of the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut.
- The 14th century Arabian lexicographer Al Firuzabadi called it "Our Riddle / Al Sadak, the Test", (correctly, "Saidak / True");

In Persia
:
- the astronomer Al Biruni (973–1048 A.D.) mentioned its importance in the family life of the Arabs on the 18th day of the Syrian month Adar, the March equinox;
- the 13th century astronomical writer Al Kazwini said that "people tested their eyesight by this star".
- a modern legend of that same people makes Alcor the infant of Mizar - the elder of the three star-sisters, - the daughters of a dead star Al Naash, killed by the Polaris;

In Europe
:
- although the statement has been made that Alcor was not known to the Greeks, there is an old story that it was the "Lost Pleiad - Electra", which had wandered here from her companions and became "Alopex / the Fox";
- the Latin title was "Eques Stellula / the Little Starry Horseman";
"Vidit Alcor, at non lunam plenam / he saw Alcor, but not the full moon" came to be a proverbial description of one keenly alive to trifles, but dull of apprehension for broad facts.
- in Germany, "Eques / the Cavalier", is from the 17th century German astronomer Bayer; Humboldt wrote of it as being seen with difficulty.
- in France, Arago similarly alluded to it;
- in England, the "Horse and his Rider", and, popularly, "Jack on the Middle Horse", are well known, Mizar being the horse.

In Japanese mythology
, Alcor is known as the lifespan star or "jumyouboshi", as it was believed that one, who could not see this star would pass away by year's end.
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mizar_and_Alcor
Tags: звезда, зрение, миф
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