Ходжа Н. (hojja_nusreddin) wrote,
Ходжа Н.

Female Leaders in Muslim Countries (7 - 17 centuries) - Part 1

To Part 2 (18 - 19 centuries): http://hojja-nusreddin.livejournal.com/3072379.html
624 Opposition Leader Hind al-Hunnud, Arab World

A member of the Quaish Tribe in the Kingdom of Kindah, she was one of the leaders of the opposition to Muhammed. She led a battle against him in 624, where her father and brother were killed and she then led a battle of vengeance against Muhammed. In the end she submitted to him and became a Muslim convert.

631-56 Politically Influential Aishah Bint Abi Bakr, Arab World

A powerful force in the political turmoil that followed the death of her husband, the Prophet Muhammed. She became an authority on Muslim tradition, and very important for her role in the civil war. She was defeated and captured in a battle in 656 and only released on promising to abandon political life. Her religious teachings became important for the Shiite branch of the Muslim faith. She lived (613-78).

681 Khanum Pisutu of Uighuristan (Central Asia)

The Uighur Khans governed portions of Central Asia in the centuries immediately following the Muslim expansion, and then fade from view. It is not entirely clear that the Turkic people called Uighurs who now dwell mostly in Western China are the same folk; the name is the same, but it could have been adopted by later-arriving tribes. The country was invaded by the Got Turks in 681.

ca. 690-701 Queen Dahlia al-Chain of the Moors (Berbian tribe in Tunisia)

Her name means the "priestess" or the "prophetess", and she assumed personal command of the Barbarian forces, and under her leadership, the Arabs were briefly forced to retreat, but since the Arabs were relentless, she ordered a scorched earth policy. After her defeat, Dahia al-Kahina took her own life, and sent her sons to the Arab camp with instructions that they adopt Islam and make common cause with the Arabs. Ultimately, these men participated in invading Europe and the subjugation of Spain and Portugal.

720-... De facto Joint Ruler Hababa of Bagdad (Iraq)

She was slave singer of the 9th Ummayyad Caliph, Yarzid II Ibn 'Abd al-Malik who was hostage to her carm. She choked on a pomegranate seed and he died of grief a few weeks later. Later historians stigmatized him and held him in contempt for letting himself be infatuated by a slave.

734-41 Khatun and Regent Mo-ki-lien of Mong (Mongolia)

Is known as Khatun Mo-ki-lien, which was the name of her husband. He was poisoned by his minister, and she acted as regent for their son, Yu-jan, who was again succeeded by her minor brother, Tängri Khagan, who died in 741.

ca. 774 Governor Cara Zon of Carcasson (Spain)

A Marurian-Arab Princess. She defended the city-state against Charles the Great.

775 - 809 Politically Influential Caliph-Consort Al-Haizuran of Bagdad (Iraq)

Also known as Khayzuran (literally, Bamboo) she was a slave, born most likely in Yemen, and gained substantial influence during the reigns of her husband, al-Mahdi (775-785), who allowed her to make many important royal decisions. After his death, it was Khayzuran who kept the peace by paying off the Caliph's army in order to maintain order. She arranged for the accession of her son, al-Hadi, even when he was away from the capitol. When al-Hadi proved less tolerant of Khayzuran's political maneuverings than had al-Mahdi, it was speculated that it was Khayzuran who arranged his murder in favour of her second, more tolerant son, Harun. Whatever the truth, Khayzuran is more fondly remembered than many of the caliphs themselves.

908-32 Politically Influential Shaghab of Baghdad (Iraq)

Succeeded in maneuvering the religious and military elite into recognizing her only 13 year old son, Muqtadir, as caliph. She had origially been a slave.

926 Regent Dowager Empress Shulü Hatun of Qidan (China and of Mongolia)

Also known as Khatun Shu-lü Shih of Purtmish, she was regent after the death of her husband Abaoji until her son Yaoku was elected as his successor as ruler of The Qidan nationality, which originally dwelt in the upper reaches of the mountains. It was nomadic and its main activities were fishing and hunting.

Around 950 Queen Yehudit of the Falasha Agaw (Ethiopia)

Also known as Yodit, Esato or Judith, she attacked the Christian southern provinces of Ethopia as far as the mountains of Tigre around 975. The Ethiopians saw her invasion as a punishment for having failed to be obedient to their Coptic patriarch. While the Agaw held power, the Amhara and Tegre culture entered a "dark age" about which little is known, and a large part of the Ethiopian civilization was lost or destroyed during this time.

Until 970 Princess Alan-Goa of the Hori-Tumat Dynasty in Mongolia

Succeeded by Bodonchar

Around 976 Politically Influential Dowager Queen of Persia (Iran)

Together with vizier Abu'l-Husain 'Abd-Allah ibn Ahmad 'Utbi, she assisted her son, Nuh II ibn Mansur, of the Samanid Dynasty (d. 997) who ascended to the throne as a youth.

981 Regent Hint bint Ishaq of Thima (Arabia)

997-1028/29 Regent for the Caliph-Governor Sayuda Sirin Hatyn of Gabal of Persia

Reigned in the name of both her son and grandson, both of the Bayide Dynasty

Around 1000 Leader Badit bint Maja of the Politically Organized Islamic Society (Ethiopia)

Either leader of a tribe or substate-entity.

1020-24 Regent Naib us Sultanat Sitt al-Moluk of Egypt

Also known as the Lady of Cairo, her name means "Lady of Power", and assumed power after having arranged the "disappearance" of her brother Imam Hakim bin Amr Allah. She had his son al-Zahir proclaimed Imam and Caliph and she became regent. She appointed competent ministers, managed to setting the economy in order and brought peace to the country. (d. 1024)

1046-62 Regent The Caliph-Mother of Egypt

For the Fathamide-Caliph. She was a Sudanese ex-slave.

1061-1107 Joint Ruler al-qa'ima bi mulkini Zainab al-Nafzawiyya of the Berber Empire (Northern Africa)

Contemporary sources name her "the one in charge of her husband's realm", and she was joint ruler with her husband, Yusuf Ibn Tashfin of an Empire covering most of Northern Africa.

1084-1137 Regent Dowager Sultana Saiyida Hurra Arwa bint Ahmad as-Sulayhi of Tihama (Arabia)

Ruled in the name of Saba, who died in 1197/99 and then reigned alone, though together with other co-regents. From sometime in the 1130s she was the sole ruler. She was succeeded by Sultan al-Mansur bin al Mugaddal.

1086-94 Regent Dowager Queen Khanum of the Tanguts (Dangxiang) (China and Mongolia)

Regent for son Li Qianshum (1086-1139), who ruled in Jingbian/Ningxian.

Until 1087 Co-Ruler al-Sayyida al-Hurra Malika Asma Bint Shibab al-Sulayhiyya of Yemen

Her title means "The Most Noble Lady who is independent, the woman sovereign who bows to no superior authority, Queen". She was married to Sultan Ali al-Sulahi, who entrusted much of the management of the realm to her. She also enjoyed the privilege of the Khutba - having the Friday's prayer preached in her name - the ultimate proof of sovereignty. In 1067 her husband was taken prisoner on a pilgrimage to Mecca and she was taken prisoner by the Bane Najah family, when she was released she continued to direct her son's rule along with her daughter-in-law 'Arwa, until her death in 1087.

1091-1138 Co-Ruler al-Sayyida al-Hurra Malika 'Arwa bint Ahmad al-Salayhiyya of Yemen

The wife of al-Mukarram Ahmad (1067-84), she was joint ruler with her mother-in-law Queen Asma. After her husband's death she became ruler in her own name, having the Friday's Prayers said in her name. She lived (1047-1137).

1092-94 Regent Dowager Princess Turhan Hatun of Seljuk Persia (Iran)

The Seljuqs were a Turkish people whose history begins around the year 1000, by which time they were the dominant presence in Transoxiana and Turkestan. They overran the western part of the Ghaznavid Emirate in 1040, and shortly thereafter took over all of Persia and Mesopotamia from the Buwayhids. The death of Sanjar in 1118 signaled the decline of the Great Seljuq Empire, which broke up into several smaller states.

1107-24 Regent Dowager Sultana of the Seljuk-Principality of Malatya in Anatolia (Turkey)

Widow of Sultan Kilj Arslan, and married to three Turkish chiefs in succession who acted as guardians of her son, Sultan Tughril Arslan. In 1124 the principality was concord by the Danishmendide-Turks.

ca. 1120-30 Ruler Al-Hurra Alam al-Malika of Zubayd (Yemen)

A singer or slave of the king Mansur ibn-Najah (Ca. 1111-23), who was so impressed by her political astuteness that he placed her in charge of the realm's management and "made no decisions without consulting her". In 1123 he was poisoned by his vizier Mann Allah, but Alam continued to govern but she never had the Khutba proclaimed in her name at the Friday night prayer. Zybayd was a principality in western Yemen near San'a, with whom it was in a perpetual state of war. The title of al-hurra was bestowed on women who were active in politics, but did not denote Queenship.

1142 Regent Dowager Khanum Ta-pu-yen of Qara Khitai (Turkestan)

After the death of her husband, Ta-pu-yen, she was regent for her son Ye-lü Yi-lie.

1151 - 1177 Khanum Regnant Tabuyan T’a-Pu-Yen Gantian Huanghou of Qara Khitai (Turkestan now Kyrgyzstan)

Leader of the Central Asian Khanate – in what today is partly Kyrgyzstan and partly Chinese Turkestan the region Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region/Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu. The state was founded by the Khitan ruler Yeh-lü Ta-shih when he conquered the Kharakhanid Turks in 1137. In 1141 Yeh-lü consolidated his conquest by defeating the Great Seljuk sultan Sanjar near Samarkand. The khanate was weakened in about 1200 by attacks from the Khwarizm shahdom and in 1218 it collapsed precipitately when the Mongols invaded. The governmental institutions of Qara Khitai were taken over by the Mongols to form the foundations of their own imperial administration.

1163 - 1677/78 Dowager Khanum Regnant Yelü Pusuwan Chengtian Taihou of Qara Khitai (Turkestan)

In the 1120s China's Liao Dynasty was ousted by the Khitans, and were driven west into Central Asia, where, after defeating the Seljuq Turks of Persia under the Sultan Sanjar in 1141, they founded the Qara-Khitai Empire with Samarkand as its capital covering present day's Mongolia, Northern-China, Kyrgyzstan and other central Asian territories.

1170/72 Regent Dowager Sultan Turhan of Hwarizim Sahi of Uiguristan (China and Kazakstan)

Reigned for Sultan Sah Abd’l Quasim Mahmud 1170/72, who was deposed as ruler of the kingdom. The origin of Uigur ethnic group can be traced back to the nomadic people living around Lake Baikal and the area between the Irtish River and Lake Balkhash in the third century B.C. During the long history, these people amalgamated the north and south Xinjiang (China), Mongolian, Han and Tibetan clans. And the present Uigur ethnic group came into being. The Uigur has its own language and alphabet, which belongs to the Turki Austronesian, Altai Phylum. In their language, "Uigur" means "solidification and union". The Uigurs rely heavily on agriculture as their main source of survival. They plant cotton, wheat, corn and paddy. The largest grape base of China is also located in the Turpan Basin.

1172 - 1174 Politically Influential Terken Khatun (I) of the Khwarezmian Empire (Iran)

After the death of her husband, Shah Il-Arslan, his sons began fighting over who would succeed him. Sultan Shah was the younger son, but he was considered the formal heir and she placed him on the throne. The elder son, Tekish, fled to the Qara Khitai and was given a large army, and he soon set off for Khwarazm. She and her son decided to flee, and Tekish installed himself in Khwarazm unopposed in December 1172, but she gained the support of Mu'ayyad al-Din Ai-Aba, a former Seljuk Amir who had set himself up in Nishapur since the collapse of Seljuk power there, he led an army into Khwarazm, but was defeated, captured and executed. Her son eventually found refuge with the Ghurids, but she was hunted down and killed by Tekish's forces.

1200 - 1220 De-facto Co-Ruler Terken Khatun (II) of Khwarezmian Empire (Iran)

After the death of her partner, 'Ala' al-Din Tekish (1172-1200), she so dominated the court of their son, 'Ala' al-Din Muhammad II (1200-20) and quarreled so bitterly with his heir by another wife, Jalal al-Din, that she may have contributed to the impotence of the Khwarazmshahi kingdom in the face of the Mongol onslaught. She had a separate Divan and separate palace and the orders of the sultan were not considered to be effective without her signature. The Shah ruled the heterogeneou peoples without mercy. In face of Mongol attacks, Khwarazm empire, with a combined army of 400.000, simply collapsed. Harezmshah Muhammed had retreated to Samarkand towards the end of his domination and he had to leave the capital city of Gurgenç to her.

1208-20 Queen Ahmadilidyn of the Urmiya Dynasty of Persia

Succeeded her father as head of the Ahmadilit-dynasty.

121? - 1218 Ruler Salbak Turhan of Uiguristan (Kazakstan)

The Qara-Khitai Empire with Samarkand as its capital covering present day's Mongolia, Northern-China, Kyrgyzstan and other Central Asian Territories.
In 1210 the Qara-Khitai Empire lost Transoxiana to the Khwarazim Shahdom, previously a vassal. The empire ended in 1218, when it was annexed by the Mongol Empire of Chingiz Khan.

1218 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Selsjuks in Aleppo (Syria)

Widow of Al-Zahir for son al-Aziz. Her troops was involved in the fight against the crusaders.

1236-40 Sultan Galalat ad-Din Begum Radiya bint Shamas al-Din Iltutmish of the Delhi Sultanate (Most of Northern India)

Also known Razia Begum or Radiyya Altamish, she was The daughter of the first Mameluk king of Delhi, Sultan Ilutmish, she came to the throne after deposing her brother and having him killed. She used the title al-dunya wa al din, which can be translated into "the blessed of the earthly world and of the faith". She was a very able leader and military commander, but was deposed and executed in 1246/47.

1236-42 Regent Dowager Princess Dayfa Khatun bint al-Adil Muhammadn of Yamkhad (Syria)

Dayfat Hatun was the widow of ad az-Zahir Ghazi Ghiyath ud-Din I, who ruled (1186-1216) and after the death of her son, al-'Aziz Muhammad Ghiyath ud-Din II (1216-1236) she became regent for her grandson al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din (1236-1260). The capital of the Kingdom was Aleppo, an ancient city in northwestern Syria, about 130 km east of Antiochia.
From 1237 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Selsjuks in Aleppo (Syria)
for Sultan al-Nazir, fighting with the Latin kings and counts in the area.

1241-... Joint Ruler Empress Kassi of Mali

According to custom, the emperor and the principal wife ruled jointly. She was married to her paternal cousin, Suleyman (1241-60), and was extremely popular with the royal court. After her husband divorced her in order to marry the commoner Bendjou, she rallied support of the noble ladies, who refused to pay homage to the new Empress. Kassi was then forced to seek refuge in a mosque, where she initiated a revolt, which ended in the defeat of her Faction.

1241-48 Grand Khanum Regnant Törägänä of the Qagans of China

Also known as Töregene Khâtûn, she was head of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, which ruled most of China and Chinese Turkestan. Her son, Guyuk, was Khan 1246-48.

1242-46 Regent Dowager Khanum Ebüskün of Qara Khitai (Turkestan)

For Qara Hülägü. The dynasty used to rule over a vast empire, but had been forced back to present day's Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

1248-51 Empress Khanum Hatun Ogul Gamys of The Yuan Dynasty in China

Also known as Oghul Qamish or Ghaimish. After the death of her husband, Greath Khan Güyük, she became regent for her three young sons Qucha, Naqu and Qughu and thereby became ruler over parts of China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakstan and Turkestan. In 1250 she received three envoys of Louis IX of France. She accepted their presents as a tribute and demanded that the king of France made more explicit submission to her. In 1251 fighting broke out between rival Factions of the ruling family, she was convicted of sorcery, sewn up in a sack and drowned in 1252.

1249-50 Regent Shajarat al-Dur of Egypt and Syria
1250 Sultan Regnant (Queen of the Muslims)
1250-57 Co-ruler

In 1249, the French army under Louis IX of France attacked Egypt. Shagrat who was regent for her husband Salih, who was in Damascus, organized the defence of the realm. After her husband's death his son Turan became ruler, but she retained control, and defeated the Crusaders at Damietta. The leaders of the army plotted against Turan and have him murdered. On May 2, 1250, they put Shagrat al-Durr on the throne, thus beginning the Mamluk dynasty. As sultan she has coins struck in name, and she is mentioned in weekly prayers in mosques. These two acts only can be done for the person who carries the title of sultan, but the Caliphate at Baghdad did not approve of Shagrat, who stepped down after for only two months. But she married her successor Aibak, a Mamluk soldier. Reports tell of their great love for one another, and for seven years she continued to rule. An historian who lived at the time comments: "She dominated him, and he had nothing to say." Shagrat continued to sign the sultan's decrees, has coins struck in both their names, and dared to be addressed as Sultana. She was killed in 1257, apparently, after having murdered her husband.

1252 - 1261 Regent Dowager Khanum Organa Hatum of the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang) and of Qara Khitai (China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)

Head of the Ghafa Sid Horde (or Qara Khitai/ Chagataiid Horde) and ruled over a vast territory after the death of Qara Hulegu as successor of Qara Hulegu, who reigned 1247-52 and 1252. She was succeeded by Khan Alughu. Her name also spelled as Orqina Khatum.

1255-57 Regent Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (or the Khanate of Kipchak) (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan)

Widow of Batu, who was khan (1227-55). When he died in 1255 his son and heir, Sartaq, had gone to pay court to Grand Khan Mongka, his father's friend. But he died before he could return home to the Khanate of Kipchak. Mongka nominated the young prince Ulagci, who was either the brother or son of Sartaq, and made Boraqchin regent of the Mongol tribe (The Golden Horde) in West Turkestan, roughly covering present day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

1257-82 Regent Dowager Sultan Turhan Hatun 'Ismat ad-Duyan Wa’l-Din of Qutlug Khan (Iran)

Also known as Qutlug or Kutlugh, she ruled as regent for son Sultan Haggag (Hağğağ) until 1267, and afterwards alone. She had the khutba (prayer for the sovereign) proclaimed in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate reign. She was deposed by Ahmad Teguder and replaced by her stepson as ruler of Qutluq Khan or Kirman. Her daughter, Padisha, later reigned the Kingdom of Kirman.

1260-62 Regent Dowager Princess Turhan Hatun of Banu-Salgar (Iran)

The Mongol Empire after 1260 laid fragmented as the four Mongol states - the Golden Horde in the west, Il-Khans in Persia, Chagatai empire in Mongolia, and Kublai Khan in China - and the Mongols in Persia were further divided into a number of smaller states in addition to the Il-Khans. One of them was Banu-Salgar.

1261-63 Regent Dowager Princess Terken Khatun of Fars (Iran)

After the death of her husband, Atabeg Sa'd II bin Abi Bakr bin Sa'd bin Zangi, she was duly confirmed by ruler of Fars by the Ilkhan Hülegü. She then married a kinsman, presumably as part of some now forgotten dynastic pact, but he killed her in a drunken frenzy and subsequently rebelled against the Ilkhan. After his defeat and death in 1263/64, Hülegü nominated her infant daughter, Abish Khatun to be the ruler of Fars.

1263-75 Atabeg Regnant Abisha Hadud Khatun of Fars (Iran)
1283-87 Governor of Fars

Also known as Abish Khatun or Aubee Khatton, she was nominated as ruler by the Ilkhan of the Khwarazham Empire in Persi, after her mother, Terken Khatun, was killed. Her name was read in the khutha and struck on the coinage. In 1274, when she was about fifteen, she was taken to the Ilkhan's ordu (Court), and married to Tash-Möngke (Mengü Temür), a younger son of Hülegü This was a marriage, forbidden in Islamic law, between a Muslim woman and a shamanist, but presumably the will of the Ilkhan transcended all other considerations. She became his chief wife and had two daughters by him, Kürdüjin and Alghanchi. When her husband was sent as governor to Fars, she was retained in the ordu, but 1283, the new Ilkhan, Ahmad Tegüder (1282-84), recalled him from Shiraz and appointed her in his place. Her financial recklessness, coinciding with a drought throughout Fars, meant that she defaulted on her revenue payments, so that Ahmad Tegüder's successor, Arghun (1284-91), ordered her to appear at the ordu. Perhaps relying on the good offices of Öljei Khatun, Hülegü's widow, to protect her from the Ilkhan's wrath, she declined to go and behaved outrageously toward the officials sent to supersede her. She was eventually forced to capitulate and submitted to the Ilkhan (Öljei Khatun did indeed intercede for her), dying at the ordu in 1287, after having lived (ca. 1269-87).

1285 - 87 Maat Layla Sultan of Harrar (Ethiopian Sup state)

Succeeded her brother as head of the Semitic speaking Islamic Ethiopian Boarder State.

1291 - 95 Safwad al dunya wa ad-Din Padshah Hatun of Qutlugh Khan (Iran)

Padshah became ruler and took the title Safwad al dunya wa ad-Din (Purity of the earthly world and of the faith) after Djalal da-Din Abu'l-Muzzafar was deposed as head of the Mongol tribe, which reigned in the southeastern Iran. She had her stepbrother Suyurghatamish arrested and eventually killed. She was daughter of Kitlugh Turkan or Turkan Khatun, Queen of Qutlugh Khan or Kirman (1257-82). In 1295 her husband's successor Great Khan Baydo of the Ilkhan dynasty, had her put to death on the advise of the leader of Suyurghatamish's clan, his widow, Khurdudjin.

1307 Dowager Empress Khanum Bulugan of the Yuan Dynasty in China

She was widow of Temur Oljetu (Cheng Tsung) who ruled (1294-1307) as successor to Khubilaikhan (Shizu) and acted as regent for her step-grandson Wu Tsung, also known as Khaishan or Hai San. She was born as Princess Bulukhan of the Baya'ud.

1316-17 Regent and Principal Minister Qutlug Sah Hatun of Persia and Iraq

After the death of her husband, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammed Uljaytu (1282-1304-16) the 8th Il Khan she was regent for their son, 'Ala al-Dunaya wa 'l-din Abu Said (1304-1317-1335). The dynasty had reigned Persia and Iraq China since Kubilai Khan of Mongolia and China appointed his brother, Halagu (1256-1265) as tributary sub-ruler. With the death of Abu Sa'id the Il-lkhanid dynasty in Iran virtually came to an end.

1316 Ruler Dawlat Khatun of Luristan (Persia)

Succeeded her husband, Izz al-Din Muhammad, the 13th sovereign of the Mongol Bani Kurshid dynasty, which ruled Luristan in southwestern Persia. She proved to be a poor administrator, and therefore she abdicated after a short period in favour of her brother-in-law, Izz al-Din Hassan.

1325-36 Politically Influential Baghdad Khatun of the Ilkhanate in Persia (Iran)

First married to Shaykh Hasan Buzurg, founder of the Jalayirid dynasty, whom she married in 1323. Two years later, they divorced on the orders of her uncle, Abu Said, the Ilkhan, and they married in 1327, and now enjoyed a period of unprecedented power as the harem favorite, even acquiring the honorific title of Khudawandigar [sovereign]. 1331-32, she briefly fell from grace because of accusations that she had plotted the assassination of Abu Said with her former husband, but in the following year she was restored to favour. Another blow to her authority came in 734/1333-34, when Abu Sa'id married her niece, Dilshad Khatun, and elevated the latter to the rank of principal wife. She displayed her resentment at her diminished status and when, according to Ibn Battuta, Abu Sa'id died in 1335, she was accused of poisoning him and was beaten to death in her bathhouse either by order of his amirs or his successor, Arpa.

1332 - 33 Regent Dowager Empress Khanum Ptashali of the Yuan Dynasty of China

Leader of the Qagans Mongolian Dynasty which ruled most of China and surrounding territories, during the reigns of Irinjibal (1332) and Toghon Temur (1333-70). In 1368 the Yuans were replaced by the Ming Dynasty after a period of internal revolt.

1338 - 39 Acting Caliph Governor and Principal Minister Sati Beg Hatun of the Mongols Il Khans Empires in Persia (Iran)

Used the title Al-sultana al-radila Sati Bek Khan Khallad Allah mulkaha - The just sultana Sati Bek, may Allah perpetuate her reign, and was daughter and sister of some of the earlier rulers. After Mohammad was overthrown, she took power and married Suleiman, who became titular co-ruler. The Mongols Il Khans controlled Persia as a sort of local Mongol authority under the Great Horde.

ca.1344-ca.52 Sultan Regnant Mo'at Laila of Ifat (East Shoa, Ethiopian Substate)

The Muslim sultanate situated in the northeastern Shewan foothills was one of the boarder-states threatening the Ethiopian state but it was about one hundred years later.

1348-79 Sultan and Maha Radun Malikat Rahandi Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands, Sultan of Land and Sea and Lord of the twelve-thousand islands

One of three daughters of Sultan Salah ad-Din Salih Albendjaly, who was succeeded by her brother. The vizier 'Abdallah al-Muhammad al-Hazrami married the sultan's mother, and had him put to death. Meanwhile, Khadija had married Jamal-ud-din, who managed to take over the reigns of power for his wife. As vizier he issued orders in her name. Succeeded by sister, Myriam.

1366-71 Regent Khanum Beng Shi of Yuan China

For the pretender Ming Sheng.

1370-73 Khanum Regnant Tulun Beg of the Golden Horde in Russia and Serbia

Member of the Akurdu Dynasty.

1379-81 Sultan Myriam Raadafati Kambadi Kilege of the Maldive Islands

Also known as Queen Siri Suvama Abaarana. Her sister, Sultan Khadija, reigned three times beginning in 1337. Myriam was the last of the Lunar Dynasty and was deposed by a Moslem cleric by the name of Fagi Mohamed son of Kaeumani Kaulhannaa Kilege of Maakuratu, who was succeeded by his daughter Daainu Kambaa in 1383.

1383-88 Sultan Malikat Daainu Kambaa Radafati Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands

Also known as Fatima, she was daughter of Sultana Myriam, who was deposed by Fagi Mohamed in 1381. Daainu was deposed by her husband who ascended the throne as Sultan Abdulla II and reigned a month and a half before being assassinated by Osman of Fehendu.

14?? Tribal Leader Lalla Aziza in Morocco

Very influential during her life-time in her Berban tribe, she is now considered a saint who protects chasseurs and the aèdes berbères.

14?? Malika Tindu of the Jallarid Dynasty (Iraq)

Ruled sometime during the 15th century, and had the khubta - Friday's prayers - preached in her name.

1411-19 Governor and Sultan Tandu of Baghdad (Iraq)

Also known as Tindu, she belonged to the Jalarid Dynasty, a branch of the Ilkhan Mongol rulers, and daughter of king Awis. She was first married to al-Zahir Barquq, the last Mamluk king of Egypt. She did not like life in Cairo and her husband let her go back to Baghdad, where she married her cousin Shah Walad bin Ali, the Governor for the Caliph, and after his death she acceded to the throne, had coins stuck in her name and the khutba (sovereign's prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques. She was one of the last Mongol rulers in the area.

1432 Regent Dowager Sultana Aisha Sia of Ternate (Indonesia)

After the death of her husband Paduka Sri Sultan Bessi Muhammad Hasan, Kaicili Komalo Pulu, Sultan of Ternate (1377-1432), who established himself as paramount ruler of the Moluccas, taking the title of Kolano ma-Lukku in 1380, for grandson Kaicili Ngolo-ma-Kaya, who succeeded as Paduka Sri Sultan Gapi Baguna II. She was daughter of another sultan of the state.

Around 1450 Chieftainess Sharifa Fatima of the Zaydi (Yemen)

The daughter of the religious leader, Imam al-Zayel al-Nasir Li Din Allah, she and her tribe took San'a by force of arms in the mid 15th century.

1461-70 Regent Dowager Sultana Mhduma Gahan of Bahmani Sahi (India)

For Nizanu Shah (d. 1463) and Sams ad-Din Muhamed Shah II (1463-82).

1467 Princess Regnant Bigum Hatun of Qara Quyünlü (Iraq)

Ruler of a Turkish Tribe in Mesopotamia

1470 - ca. 1492 Regent Khatun Mandughai of Mongolia

Also known as Mandugaya Setsen Khantun, she was widow of Grand Khan Mandaghol, the 27th successor of Jengis Khan, who was succeeded by his nephew, Bolkho, in 1467. When he was assassinated three years later, the mother of his five-year-old son, Dayan Qagani, had deserted the child, and Mandughai took him under her protection, proclaimed him khan, and became his regent. She assumed command of the Mongol troops and defeated their enemy, the Oirat. In 1481 she married Dayan, and 1491-92 she again lead the army to fend off the Orat.

1470 - 1490 We Ban-ri Gau Daeng Marawa Makalappi Bisu-ri La Langpili Patta-ri La We Larang, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Styled Arung Majang before her accession on the death of her father. Her ceremonial name was Malajangi-ri China, and she was mother of two sons.

1470-... Sultana Narisa Malik uz-Zahir of Samudra Pasai Kesepulih (Indonesia)

Daughter of Sultan Kadir al Malik uz-Zahir ibnu al-Marhum of Pasai and married to Sultan Muhammad of Aceh, who reigned (1465-77)

1481-92 Amina Gul-Bahar Khanum Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

The Valide Sultan was the mother of the sultan, and had an important place in the imperial family. In some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. She was married to Mohammed II and mother of Bajazet (1481-1512), and lived (1434-94)

1482-92 Regent 'A'isha al-Hurra of Cordova (Spain)

Gained support from the nobles and military leaders to depose her husband, 'Ali abu al-Hasan (reigned 1461-82), who was being infatuated by his Christian concubine, Isabella, who had converted to Islam and taken the name of Soraya. Her son, Muhammad Abu 'Abdallah was proclaimed as caliph. She played a prominent role in the last years of the Muslim reign in the south of Spain, which was conquered by their Catholic majesties, Isabel I of Castilla and Fernando of Aragon.

1482-1530 President of the Regency Council The Makhduma-e-Jahan of The Bahmani Deccan (Oudh) (India)

As Dowager Queen, she was Regent for son Mahmud Shah Bahmani, who ascended the throne at the age of 12 years, when some usurpers had been overthrown.

15??. Princesss Regnant Nur Begum of Hunza (Afganistan)

The daughter of Girkis Han, she ruled for 12 years of the mountainous region on the boarder to China. Succeeded by nephew Ayaso I.

1510 - 1552 Governor Sayyida al-Hurra of Tetouán (Morocco)

First confirmed as prefect and then appointed governor of the city state of Tetouán ("Hakima Tatwan"). She was the undisputed leader of the pirates in the western Mediterranean. She was married to Sultan Al-Mandri and after his death she married Ahmad al-Wattasi, who reigned (1524-49). After her first husband's death, she gained the title al-hurra (Sovereign Lady). She was member of the Andalusian noble family, Banu Rashid, who immigrated to Morocco after the Christian conquest of Muslim Spain. She was deposed in 1552.

1520 - 1534 Gulbehar Hatun Mahidevran Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Also known as Aisha Hafsa Khanum, she was mother of Suleiman II, the son of Selim I. In some aspects the Valide Sultan was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire.

1521 - 1532 Regent The Dowager Queen Njai Tjili of Ternate (Indonesia)

Regent for sons Deijalo and Bohejat. In 1532 Prince Kaitjil became sultan.

1523 - 1558 De-facto Ruler Kadin Roxelana of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Very influential during the reign of her husband Sultan Süleiman II (1520-66). She had originally been bought as a slave by Süleiman's friend Ibrahim Pascha. The Pascha later gave her to the Sulatan as a gift. she is believed to have been born in Russia and lived (ca. 1507-58)

1529 - 1530 Regent Dowager Sultan Dudu of Janupur (India)

After the death of her husband, Muhammed, she was regent for Galal Han, who was deposed in 1533. Under her family's reign, the state became the home of Muhammadan culture and refuge for men of letters. She was killed in 1530.

1543 - 1552 Regent Dowager Sultana Bat'ial Dël Wanbara of Harar (Ethiopia)

In charge of the territory after her husband, Imam Ahmad had been killed. She reigned jointly with 'Ali Jarad. She had accompanied her husband on his expeditions of conquest in the Christian highlands. At times she had to be carried on their shoulders up and down steep and rocky mountain slopes, twice in a state of pregnancy. She gave birth to Muhammad in 1531 and Ahmad two years later. After the defeat and death of her husband and the capture of her young son Muhammad, she fled to the north-west of Lake Tana, and eventually succeeded in returning to Harar, then at the center of Adal power. Her first task was to make arrangements for the exchange of her eldest son Muhammad for Emperor Galawdewo's brother, Minas. Del Wanbara was determined to revenge her husband's death and, nine years later, agreed to marry the Emir of Harar, Nur Ibn Mujahid, son of her first husband's sister, seeing in him the best prospect of achieving her aim. Emir Nur began by rebuilding Harar, which had been sacked, and enclosed the town with a wall which can be seen to this day. Having reorganized his forces, he undertook a new conquest of the Christian highlands and, in 1559, killed Emperor Galawdewos in battle. She was daughter of Imam Mehefuz, governor of Zayla and de facto ruler of the state of Adal. She married Imam Ahmad and, ignoring the protests of his soldiers,

1544 - ? Politically influential Mihrumâh Sultana of the Ottoman Empire

Only daughter of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent by Hürrem Sultan. Her father ored his her, and complained with her every wish. She married Rüstem Paþa, Governor-General of Diyarbakýr, who was shortly afterwards appointed grand vizier. According to Ottoman historians, Hürrem, Mihrumâh and Rüstem Paþa conspired to bring about the death of Þehzade Mustafa, who stood in the way of Mihrumâh Sultan’s influence over her father. The fact that Mihrumâh encouraged her father to launch the campaign against Malta, promising to build 400 galleys at her own expense; that like her mother she wrote letters to the King of Poland; and that on her father’s death she lent 50.000 gold sovereigns to Sultan Selim to meet his immediate needs, illustrate the political power which she wielded. Her husband was grand vizier in the periods 1544 - 1553 and 1555 - 1561, and she and her mother formed an inner circle in the government which evidently influenced the sultan's decisions particularly in issues concerning the succession and the future of the sultanate. They were accused of putting pressure on her father to execute his eldest surviving son, Mustafa. At that critical point when Sultan Süleyman was faced with open protest from the army and negative public opinion following the murder of Mustafa, Süleyman was forced to replace his son-in-law in the position of grand vizirate with Kara Ahmed Pasha, a war hero and favourite of the army. But within two years under pressure from the inner circle under Hürrem, Kara Ahmed was eliminated and Rustem resumed the grand vizirate, keeping the office until his death in 1561.

ca. 1545 - ca.1570/80 Sultan Hudah bint Sarmah al-Fasi of Fazzan (Libya)

Grandchild of Muhamad al-Fasi Fezzan. The state mainly consisted of oases in the Sahara Desert, and the population is largely Arab, with Berber and black African influence. Located on caravan routes connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Sudan, Fazzan was long important in the trans-Saharan trade. From the early 16th to the early 19th century it was the center of the Bani Muhammad dynasty, which originated in Morocco.

1549 - 1551 Regent Dowager Princess Syun Beka of Kazan (Russia)

Regent for son. Today Kazan is the capital of the Russian Republic of Tatarstan.

1556 - 1564 Regent for the Governor Mah Cucak Bigum of Kabul, Afganistan

Reigned for Governor Miza Muhammad Hakim (1556-85) hereditary representative of the Grand Mogul of India. She was murdered in 1565

1560 - 1562 De-facto regent Maham Anga of the Mughal Empire (India)

The chief nurse of Emperor Akbar, she gained influence after she convinced Akbar to dismiss his minister, Bairam. Her power began to wane in 1561, when Akbar appointed Atkah Khan as chief minister. Five months later her son, Adham Khan, Akbar's foster-brother, attempted to assassinate Atkah Khan, but was executed, and she died shortly after, and the emperor, who was now 19 ruled alone from then on.

1574 - 1583 Politically Influential Nur Banu Sultan Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Nur Banu took an active part in the governance of the empire as the chief advisor of her son, Murad III. Of Italian origin, she was married to Selim III, and lived (1530 - 83 or to 1595)

1576 - 1610 Queen Amina Sarauniya of Zazzua, Zaria and Abuja
1580 - 1582 Queen of Kano (Nigeria)

Probably the granddaughter of Sarkin (king) Zazzau Nohir. Zazzua was one of a number of Hausa city-states which dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the Songhai empire to the west. At the age of sixteen, Amina became the heir apparent (Magajiya) to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the ruling Queen of Zazzua. With the title came the responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils with other officials. Although her mother's reign was known for peace and prosperity, Amina also chose to learn military skills from the warriors. Queen Bakwa died around 1566 and the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At this time Amina emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power. When Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina became Queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military expedition three months after coming to power and continued fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she expanded the domain of Zazzua to its largest size ever. Lived (ca. 1533-ca- 1610)

1577-80 Regent Dowager Queen Mahid-I Uliyah of Persia

Regent for Esmâil II (1576-78) and Shah Mohammed Khodâbanda (1578-87) of the Safavid Dynasty, which was of Turkmen origin and established themselves first at Tabriz, which had been the capital of the Mongol Il Khans, in Turkish speaking Azerbaijanistan. They also brought the Shi'ite branch of Islam to Persia.

1580 - 1590 Regent Dowager Sultana Cand Bibi of Bijapur (India)
1596 - 1599 Regent of Ahmadnagar

After her husband, 'Ali 'Adil Shah II, was killed in 1580, she was regent for her nephew, Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II, and ruled with great prudence and intelligence till the young king came of age. When order was restored in Bijapur kingdom, Chand Bibi went back to her motherland Ahmadnagar, where the ruler, Murtada Shah, died at a moment when the foreign relations of the state were strained to breaking-point and was imminent, she returned to Bijapur, and mustered some reliable troops in consideration of the defence of Ahmadnagar fort against the mighty army of the Mughals led by their able general. After this great defence, Chand Bibi came to be known as Chand Sultana. Later the Mughals succeeded to turn the troops of Chand Bibi and had a siege over Ahmadnagar in 1008/1599. This time, emperor Akbar himself rushed to Deccan and pitched his tents outside the city. Chand Bibi became desperate and resisted the Mughal attacks with such courage that the invaders were repelled at many places. At length, Hamid Khan, the traitor allowed the Mughal force to enter Ahmadnagar, and entered the palace of Chand Bibi to kill her. At that moment of disaster, Chand Bibi came out of her apartments and fought bravely and was killed, and thus, Ahmadnagar was captured by the Mughals in 1600. She was daughter of Hussain NIzam shah of Ahamadnagar, and lived (1550-99).

1584 - 1616 Raja Ijau I of Patani (Thailand)

Also known as Ratu Hijau "The Green Queen", she succeeded brother as ruler of the Malayan kingdom-sultanate, and was succeeded by sister in 1616. Her aunt, Raja A'isyah had sometime been regent for Sultan Bahdur after Sultan Manzur Syah who ruled (1564-73). She was succeded by sister.

1595 - 1603 Politically Influential Safiye Vailde Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Took an active part in the governance of the empire as the chief advisor of her sons Murad III and Mehmed III. She lived (1550-1605)

1603 - 1605 De-facto Ruler Handam Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Her full title was Daulatlu Ismatlu Hansam Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, and she was very powerful during the reign of Ahmed Khan I (1613-17), and lived (1576-1605).

1607 - 1609 Sultana Kuda Kala Kamanafa’anu, Sultana of Land and Sea, Lady of the Thousand Islands and Sultana of the Maldive Islands

In spite of the fact that the island was Islamic, the rulers continued to use ancient Sanskrit titles alongside their Islamic styles until the middle of the twentieth century. The sultanate was attacked by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century but regained its independence in 1573. They also fell prey to the marauding raids of the Ali Rajas of Cannanore, who frequently kidnapped princes and influential nobles and carried them off to the Laccadives. Although close trading relations were established with the Dutch in Sri Lanka, the Maldives remained aloof from the Western powers for another two centuries. She was never secure as ruler due to a long civil war. She died at sea or on Mahibadu Island, Ari Atol, while on pilgrimage to give alms.

1607 - 1627 Panembahan Putri Bunku of Sukudana (Indonesia)

Succeeded husband.

After 1609 - before 1630 Sri Paduka Ratu Sepudak of Sambas (Indonesia)

A descendant of the Majapahit Kings and the last Hindu ruler of the kingdom. Her youngest daughter, Putri Mas Ayu Bungsu's husband, Radin Sulaiman, became Sultan of Sambas. He was son of the Sultan of Brunei.

1611 - 1628 De-facto Ruler Empress Nur Jahan of India

Married to the Mughul Emperor Jahangir, she was an excellent conversationalist, a fine judge of Persian poetry and a poet herself. Her accomplishments made her an irresistible companion for the emperor. Nur Jahan was a patron of painting and architecture whose interests also extended to the decoration of rooms as well as the designing of ornaments, brocades, rugs and dresses. After his death in 1627 she resided in Lahore until her own death. Born as Mehr un-Nissa in Persia. (d. 1645)

1616 - 1624 Raja Ratu Biru of Patani (Thailand)

In 1584, Patani entered its golden age with the rule of four successive Queens, Ratu Hijau ("The Green Queen"), Ratu Biru ("The Blue Queen"), Ratu Ungu ("The Violet Queen") and Ratu Kuning ("The Yellow Queen"). Biru was the second of three sisters on the throne.

1617 - 1618 and 1622 Naib-i-Sultanat (Regent) Valide Sultana II of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

After the death of her husband, Sultan Ahmed Khan I (1603-17), she was regent for son. Mustapha Khan I (1717-23). She was born in Europe, and lived (1576-1623).

1618 - 1620 Kahadija Mahfiruz Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Also known as Daulatlu Mahfiruz, her full title as mother sultan Osman II, was Daulatlu Ismatlu Mahfiruz Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari. In some aspects the Valide Sultan was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. She lived (1590-1620)

1623 - 1632 Naib-i-Sultanat (Regent) Kösem Mahpeyker Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
1632 - 1651 De-facto regent

Her full name and title was Daulatlu Ismatlu Kulsum Mahpeyker Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari.Kösem was regent for son Murad, (1623-40) who succeeded at the age of 11, for Ibrahim (1640-48) who was mentally disturbed and for grandson Mehmed IV, who succeeded at the age of 7 in 1648. In 1651 she plotted against her daughter-in-law, but was killed instead. Of Greek origin, she lived (1589-1651)

1624 - 1635 Raja Ratu Ungu of Patani (Thailand)

During the reign of the of three sisters the Malayan Kingdom-Sultanate was expanded its borders to include Kelantan and Trengganu and became the most powerful Malay state after Johor. It was during this time that Patani became renowned for manufacturing cannon, producing three of the largest bombards ever cast in the region - 'Mahalela', 'Seri Negara' and 'Seri Petani'. With each measuring over six metres in length. Also known as "The Violet Queen", she was succeeded by daughter.

From 1626 Regent Aayat Bahs Bigum of Golkonda (India)

After the death of her husband, she became regent for Sultan Abd Allah (1613-26-72). The Golkonda state broke from Gulbarga in 1518 and remained independent under eight sultans until 1687 when it was conquered by the Great Mughal Aurangzeb.

1632/33 Sultana Alimah I of Nzwani, Comoro Islands

Formerly known as Anjouan, an Island in the Mozambique Channel off north west Madagascar between Mayotte and Njazídja in the Indian Ocean. The hilly island is only 424 square kilometers.

1635 - 1688 Raja Ratu Kuning of Patani (Thailand)

Known as "The Yellow Queen", she succeeded her mother Queen Raja Ungu as the last of four succesive Queens. During her reign the country fell into gradual decline. This decline probably prompted her to submit to Siam as a vassal state and send the 'Bunga Mas' to Ayutthya. She died without an heir and the country descended into decades of political chaos and conflict. Fortunately for Patani, Siam was too weak to take advantage of the situation, being too busy driving off crippling Burmese invasions into her territory, culminating in the pillaging and complete destruction of Ayutthaya in 1767.

Around 1635 Datu We Tan-ri Sui of Mario-ri Wawo (Indonesia)

Daughter of I-Dangka We Tan-ri Tuppu, Arumpone of Bone (1590- 1607) and her husband and successor La Tan-ri Ruwa Paduka Sri Sultan Adam (1607-08). She was married to La Pakkou To' Angkone Taddampali, Prince of Bone and their son became Sultan and Arumpone of Bone in 1672, at a time when he had already succeeded her as Datu of Mario-ri Wawo. He lived (1635-96). It is not known when she lived.

1641 - 1675 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Ratu Safiat ud-din Taj ul-'Alam Shah Johan Berdaulat Zillu'llahi fi'l-'Alam binti al-Marhum Sri Sultan Iskandar Muda Mahkota Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh (North Sumatra) (Indonesia)

Born as Raja Permusairi Putri Sri 'Alam, she was installed on the death of her husband and relative, Paduka Sri Sultan Iskandar Thani 'Ala ud-din Mughayat Shah Johan Berdaulat Zillu'llahi fi'l-'Alam ibnu al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad Shah, who had succeeded her father, Sultan Iskander, in 1636. She lost Pahang to Johor soon after her accession. Her reign ushered in half a century of rule under women sovereigns, beginning with her husband's other widow, 'Taj ul-Alam. Her female successors, were all chosen by the increasingly powerful regional nobles and territorial magnates unwilling to submit to surrender power to a strong ruler. All four were chosen after they had past childbearing age, so that husbands or sons could not establish themselves in the supreme authority. Her throne name Safiat ud-din Taj ul-'Alam Shah means "Purity of the Faith, Crown of the World", and she was succeeded by Sultana Nagiat, and (d. 1675)

1651 - 1656 Naib-i-Sultanat (Regent) Khadija Turhan Hadice Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Had been Valide Sultan since 1648, and took over as regent for her son, Mehmed IV (1648-51-87) after her mother-in-law was killed. As her predecessor as regent, she took part in the deliberations in the Imperial Diet seated behind a curtain, she authorized all appointments and cooperated closely with the Grand Vizier as "The Guardian and Representative of the Sultan". Of Russian origin, she lived (1627-83).

1652 - 1697 Sultan Fatimah of North Zanzibar (Tanzania)

Succeeded Sultan Bakiri, her brother, who had been sultan of the whole island. In 1652 Sultan ibn Seif of Oman drove her off the island, but for the next forty years, the Portuguese continued to maintain the upper hand and she was soon able to return to Zanzibar. In 1697 the Arabs captured Zanzibar and took her prisoner, deporting to her Muscat. After 10 years she was allowed to return, but her island remained under Arab control.

1662 - 1667 Regent Dowager Fatima Sultan Saiyia Burhan of Kasimov/ Borjegin-Sibil (The Golden Horde) (Russia)
1677 - 1681 Sultan Regnant

Also known as Sultana Sayyidovna , she was first regent or Saiyia Burhan, before becoming ruler of the Ilkhan Kingdom of Qasim in Central Asia in her own right and had the Khutba (sovereign's prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate rule. She was a descendant of the Tatars golden horde and said to be the last Mongol sovereign. The state was annexed by the Russian 1681 and she died the same year.

1662 De-facto Ruler Imperial Princess Rashanara Begum of the Indian Mongul Empire

Seized the power during the illness of the Emperor Aurangzer.

1675 - 1677 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-'Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)

Granddaughter of Sultan 'Ali Mughayat II Ri'ayat Shah, who ruled 1604-07, and married Laksamana 'Abdu'r Rahman bin Zainal Abidin, Orang Kaya Kaya Maharaja Lela Melayu, son of Zainal Abidin bin Daim Mansur, Tengku of Ribee. Perhaps mother of Sultan 'Ala ud-din Ahmad Shah Johan Badr Berdaulat, but she was succeeded by Sultana Zaqiyat. Her Throne-name Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-'Alam Shah means Light of the world, Purity of the Faith. (d. 1677)

ca. 1676 - ca. 1711 Sultan Alimah II of Nzwani, Comoro Islands

Arabic-style sultanates developed in Nzwani as early as the sixteenth century with different areas of the island first ruled by chiefs known as Fani. Later, the chiefs were involved in conflicts and appealed to Europeans to intercede on their behalf. Eventually, in 1886, the island became a French protectorate and was formally annexed by France to its possessions in 1909.

1678 - 1688 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Zaqiyat ud-din 'Inayat Shah binti al-Marhum Raja Mahmud Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)

Succeeded sultana Naqiat. She was daughter of Raja Mahmud Shah bin Raja Sulaiman Shahand and married to a great-grandson of Sultan Mukmin, who reigned 1579. Succeeded by her sister, Sultana Zinat. Sultana Zaqiyat (d. 1688).

1680s Sultan Nur al-Azam of Sulu (Philippines)

Sulu is an archipelago in the extreme southwestern corner of the Philippines, just east of Sabah (Malaysia), the northeast corner of Borneo. The region is the home of a people outsiders call Moros, a feroce and deeply independent sea-going nation; it was never conquered by the Spanish authorities in the Philippines. She succeeded Salah ud-Din Bakhtiyar and was succeeded by al-Haqunu.

1687 - 1691 Regent H.H. Sultana Mariyam Kaba'afa'anu Rani Kilege of the Maldive Islands

After the having poisoned her husband, Iskander Ibrahim, she became regent for their infant son, Sultan Muhammad I. She was killed off Dunidu Island when a spark from a victory salute blew up a powder magazine, destroying the royal vessel in which she was sailing. Her son died shortly after of the wounds he received in the explosion that killed his mother.

1687 - 1689 Saliha Dilasub Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Her full title as mother of the sultan was Daulatlu Ismatlu Mahfiruzl Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, and in some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. Mother of Süleiman II (1687-91), she lived (1627-89)

1688 - 1699 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Zinat ud-din Kamalat Shah binti al-Marhum Raja Umar of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)

The last of four consecutive female rulers, she succeeded her sister-in-law, sultana Zaqiyat. Born as Putri Raja Setia, she was great-granddaughter of Sultan Mukmin, who ruled 1579. In 1699 Sayyid Ibrahim Habib, obtained a decree from Mecca stating that female rule was contrary to the tenets of Islam. He deposed her, married her and assumed the Sultanate. They had two sons who both became sultans.

To Part 2 (18 - 19 centuries)
: http://hojja-nusreddin.livejournal.com/3072379.html
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