Ходжа Н. (hojja_nusreddin) wrote,
Ходжа Н.

Female Leaders in Muslim Countries (18 - 19 centuries) - Part 2

To Part 1 (7 - 17 centuries): http://hojja-nusreddin.livejournal.com/3072042.html
1695 - 1715 Mah-Para Ummatallah Rabia Gül-Nüz Ummetulla Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Mother of Mustafa II (1695-1703) and Ahmed III (1703-30). She did not play any major role during their reigns, but she was asked to approve and authorize the replacement of Mustafa by Ahmed, which she did. As the senior representative of the dynasty, her approval was considered to be imperative. Daughter of the Venetian Retimo Verzizzi, she lived (1647-1715).

1700 - 1707 Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tara Bai Sahib Maharaj (Sita Bai Ali Sahib) of Satara (India)

In 1714 her son, H.H Kshatrtiya-Kulawatasana Sinhasanadhishwar Shrimant Raja Shahu Sambahaji II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1698-1760), became ruler of Kolhapur. Tara Bai lived (1675-1761).

1700 - 17?? Sultana Aisa of Ma’yuta (Mayotte, today a French Possession)

At a not known date, she was succeeded by daughter, Sultana Monavo.

17?? Sultana Nyau wa Faume of Ngazidja (Comoro Islands)

The island is also known as Grande Comore.

17?? Sultan Adji di Kurin-dana Malaka of Berau (Indonesia)

Berau is a scarcely populated area in the Island of Borneo.

17?? Inas Embun Serin of Undang Luak (Malaysia)

The state was one of nine minor states which joined in the Negeri Sembilan Confederation.

17?? Amira Ghaliyy al-Whhabiyya in Saudi Arabia

A Hanibali from Tarba, she led a military resistance movement to defend Mecca against foreign take over in the beginning of the 18th century. She was given the title of Amira, the female equivalent of the title of Amir - military leader.

1704 Regent Princess Fatima of the Maldive Islands

When the news of the possible drowning of Isdu King Siri Muthei Ranmani Loka/ Sultan Ibrahim Mudhiruddine who after his abdication was known as Isdu Ibrahim Bodu Kilegefan, while returning from the Hajj pilgrimage reached Malé in 1704, his wife and regent Princess Fatima attempted to usurp the throne in her own right. Her rival and brother-in-law, Admiral-in-chief Hussain was banished to Naifaru. Fatima was however displaced from the Eterekoilu - the residence of the Sultans - by the Prime Minister Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan, who was crowned as King Siri Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Sasthura - Sultan Mudzhaffar Mohamed Imaduddine II.

1707 - 1716 Raja Devi P'ra-Chao of Patani (Thailand)

Successor of the male ruler, Raja Emas Jayam Bagunda, who reigned 1704-07 and 1721-28.

1714 - 1715, 1720, 1724 - 1738 and 1741 - 1749 H.H. Bata-ri Toja Daeng Talaga Sultana Zainab Zakiat ud-din, Arumpone of Bone
1715 and 1728 - 1738 Ruler of Soppeng
1719 - 1720 Datu of Luwu (Indonesia)

Succeeded her father, H.H. La Patau Paduka Sri Sultan Idris. Styled Datu Chita and Arung Timurang before her accession and during the times she had vacated the throne. First abdicated in favour of her brother. After his deposition she again became ruler, but abdicated immediately in favour of her eldest half-brother. Restored for the third time on his deposition, in 1724. Married to Sultan Muharram Harun ar-Rashid of Sumbawa, Prince Pabukajuwa of Bone and Datu Ulaweng, Arung Zallieng, Adatuwang of Sidenreng, who was Regent of Bone 1724-1725, and finally to Daeng Mamuntuli, Arung Kayu, Regent of Bone 1726-1728. All but the third marriage ended in Divorce. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Tipuluna had no children, and she was succeeded by a female relative, Siti Nafisha, and lived (1687-1749).

1723 - 1747 Dato' Putri Siti Awan Setiawanm I of Johol (Malaysia)

The state of Johol is one of the component states of the Negri Sembilan Federation. Originally known as Pasir Besar, it was renamed Luak Johol in 1723. The ruler is one of the four traditional electors of the Yang di-Pertuan of the Negri Sembilan federation. Setiawanm I was the first ruler and she was married to Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lelei Perkasa Setia Wan.

1724 - 1737 Regent Dowager Princess Dharmapala of The Volga Kalmyks (Lower Volga Area in Russia and Kazakstan)
1741 - 1745 Regent

The first time she was regent for Cerlu Donduk, who reigned (1725-35) until he was deposed, the second time was after the death of Donduk Ombu, Prince of the Kalmykians. (d. 1741)

1728 - 1732 Rani Herrabichi Kadavube Adi Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

Succeeded by Rani Junmabe.

1730 - 1795 De facto Ruler Begum Mamola Bai of Bhopal (India)
1777 Regent

Exercised a dominant influence during the reign of her husband, Yar Mohammad Khan (1728-42) after their marriage. After his death, she was de facto ruler during the reign of her stepson Faiz Mohammad Khan, who concentrated on religious contemplation. After his death she acted as regent and quickly proclaimed Faiz' brother, Hayat, as Nawab, but Faiz' widow, Bahu Begum, lead a revolt and set up an alternative government which lasted until 1780. Also during Hayat's reign she was the effective ruler, and it was she who took decisions on military campaigns and all other administrative affairs. She was born as a Hindu Rajput Princess, and lived (1715-95).

1730 - 1739 Saliha Sabkati Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

After the death of Ahmed III a revolt of the Janissaries put her son with Mustafa II, Mahmud I (1750 - 1754) on the throne, and she became Sultan Valide and in some aspects considered joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. Affairs of state were largely in the capable hands of the Nubian agha Beshir (1653–1746), who was the power behind a number of successive grand viziers At the tune Ottoman Empire was involved in wars with Persia. 1737 Emperor Karl IV entered the war with Russia on Russian side, but by the separate peace of Belgrade (1739) he restored North Serbia to Turkey. Mahmud was succeeded by his brother, Osman III. Saliha Sabkati lived (1680-1739).

1738 - 1741 H.H. I-Danraja Siti Nafisah Karaeng Langelo, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Succeeded Sultana Zainab Zakiat ud-din. She was second daughter of H.H. I-Mappainga Karaeng Lempangang Paduka Sri Sultan Safi ud-din, Sultan of Tallo, by his first wife, H.H. I-Tanitaja Siti Amira Maning Ratu, Arung Palakka and Heir Apparent of Bone, whose father was sultan 1720-21. Siti Nafisah died unmarried and lived (1729-41).

1739 - 1796 Politically Influential Nawab Aliya Sadrunissa Begum, Nawab Begum of Oudh (or Avadh) (India)

She was the oldest daughter of Burhan-ul-Mulk, Subedar of Avadh. Married to her cousin and father's successor Mirza Muhammad Muqim (Safdar Jung) (1739-64) in around 1724. When her father died in 1839, Nadir Shah plundered Delhi in 1739, and the Avadh landlords and small chiefs who had been effectively subdued by her father, raised their heads and arms in the attempt to secure their individual independence. In his capacity as the Nawab of Avadh, her husband was hesitant to face them despite his superior military strength. Had it not been for Nawab Begum's forceful promptings which eventually culminated in success, there may have been no further history of Avadh. Her court and courtiers maintained the peace and pomp of Faizabad. Her son, Shuja-ud-daula's, died in 1775, and together with her daughter-in-law, Bahu Begum she secured the continued existance of the capital of Avadh, Faizabad. Imprisoned in 1781 by grandson together with daughter-in-law. She lived (Ca. 1712-96).

1741 Regent Dowager Princess Gan of The Volga Kalmuks (Lower Volga Area) (Russia)
Regent for Kandul, who reigned in 1741.

Gan later converted to Christianity and took the name Vera. Originally the Kalmyks lived in Central Mongolia. Reaching the Volga region in 1630. Since the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism has been the Kalmyk’s religion, and they are the only European Buddhist people, living to the northwest of the Caspian area. They live on the northwest shores of the Caspian Sea in the lower regions of the soviet Dagestan. Kalmyks are of the Turkic language group.

1746 - 1770 Sovereign Princess Irdana Bi Erdeni of Khokanda (Uzbekistan)

Succeeded by Sulaiman who reigned for less than a year as Prince of Khokanda, which is a city near Tashkent, now located in a far eastern part of Uzbekistan. Founded in 1732, it stands on the site of the ancient city of Khavakend, obliterated by the Mongols in the 3rd century. It was ruled by the Dzungarian Kalmucks until 1758, when it became part of China.

1746 Sultan Mwana Mimi Hadiga of Patta-Pate and Witu (Kenya)

There were 4 sultans that year. Pate is an island of the coast of Kenya.

1747 - ca. 1760 Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lele Perkasa Setiawan Dato' Rambut Panjang, Dato' Undang of Luak Johol (Malaysia)

Succeeded by another woman; Dato' Johan Pahlawan Lela Perkasa Setiawan Dato' Putri Setiawan II, Dato' Undang of Luak Johol (1760-90)

1748 - 1750/53 Sultan Ratu Sarifah Fatima of Bantam (Bali) (Indonesia)

Appointed sultan after her husband, Mangkubumi was arrested after an uprising against the Dutch occupiers. She was deposed and banned from the state by the same Dutch regents.

1748 - 1754 De facto co-ruler Queen Udham Bai of the Mughal Empire (India)

Became powerful after the death of her husband, Muhammad Shah (Rawshan Akhtar) (1719-48), who lost the province of Kabul to Persia and during whose reign other provinces became practically independent. Her son, Ahmad Shah Badahur, was no stronger, and she dominated him completely. When The Marathas in Punjab rebelled, her son chose to flee, abandoning her and the other women at court. He was captured, blinded, and deposed and died in confinement in 1775.

1753 - 1756 Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Savitri Bai Raje Sahiba of Dewar (Senior) (India)

Widow of Tukaji Rao I Puar she was regent for adopted son, Krishnaji Rao I Puar (1753-89)

1753 Nominal Regent Princess Sanfa Rendi Kabafa'anu of the Maldive Islands

Nominally reigned as Regent for her brother Hasan Manikufa'anu Sultan al-Ghazi al-Hasan 'Izz ud-din Baderi. Her father Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II reigned ( 1721 -50 )

1753 - 1757 Nominal Regent Princess Amina Rani Kilegefa’anu of the Maldive Islands
1757 - 1759 Rani-Sultana

In 1752 her father, H.H. Sultan al-Mukarram Muhammad 'Imad ud-din III, was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied. The occupation was ended by Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku, a direct descendant of the penultimate Christian King Joao. The sultan died in captivity in 1757. The de facto regent was Muleegey Dom Hassam Maniku. Her sister Amina Kkanbafa’anu was regent in 1773.

1754 and 1761 Governor-Regent Muglani Suraiya Bigum of Lahore (India)

Regent for Muhammad Amin Han, who lived 1751-54 and was governor for the Emperor of the Mongul-Afgan Empire of India in 1754.

1754 - 1756 Sehsuvar Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Mother of Osman III (1754-57). Of Russian origin, she lived (1682-1756).

1760 - 1773 (†) Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Jiji Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)

Jijibai was regent for adopted son, since her husband H.H Kshatrtiya-Kulawatasana Sinhasanadhishwar Shrimant Raja Shahu Sambahaji II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1698-1760) only had a posthumously born daughter with one of his seven wifes. He was Raja of Satara (with his mother as regent) and then of the newly created state, Kolhapur) Jiji Bai lived (1716-73),

1768 - 1778 Regent Dowager Rani Chandawatiji Maharani Sahiba of Janipur (India)

Regent for son H.H. Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Prithvi Singh II Bahadur, who lived (1763-78). He was married to several wifes, and was succeeded by brother.

1773 - 1774 Joint Regent Princess Amina Kkanbafa’anu the Maldive Islands

Her brother, Sultan Al-Haj Muhammed (1766-77), appointed her and her huband, Ali Shah Bandor Vela’ana’a Manikufa’anu, as joint regents, when he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He drowned on his return in 1774. Her sister, Princess Amina Rani Kilegefa’anu, had been regent 1753-57.

1777 - 1780 Opposition Leader Bahu Begum of Bhopal (India)

Widow of Nawab Faiz, and disputed the succession of his brother, Hayat, to the throne. She began a revolt against the de facto ruler her step-mother-in-law, Mamola Bai, supported by members of another branch of the family. She began holding courts at her husband’s tomb and set up a parallel government in Islamnagar. For three years she regularly held Dunbars (Assemblies) as an act of defiance against Mamola Bai.

1778 - 1803 Regent Dowager Rani Suimri Begum of Sandhana (India)
1803 - 1836 Rani Regnant

For Musffard ad-Daula Zafar Nab Han (Aloyis Baltasaar Reinhard) - illegitimate son of her husband, Bum Raja (1773/76-78), who was born in Luxembourg as Walther Reinhard. After her stepson's death, she became Rani in her own right, and continued to perform her contracted military duties, leading her troops into battle in person. However she concentrated her efforts on developing the agriculture of Sardhana, which became famous as an island of green in a land of desolation, using her troops to keep out marauders and to enforce her policy, instead of plundering her neighbors as was the general practice at the time. She played a prominent part in the politics of the time, the fall of Moghuls, the rise of the Mahrattas, and the establishment of the British. She emerged as a sovereign Princess of her own territories, which she had enlarged and improved, so that she accumulated vast wealth. Born as Johanna Noblis (d. 1836)

1782 - 1792 Sultan Halimah III of Nzwani (Comoro Islands)

Her name is also spelled Alimah. She was de-factor ruler with Abdallah I until 1788 and in 1792 he again ruled until 1706. The island was formerly known as Anjouan.

18?? Mfahme Nyau wa Faume of Bambo (Comoro Islands)

Today Bambo is the capital of the Comoro Islands

18?? Sultan Ja Mhaba Hadija bint Ahmed of Bajini (Comoro Islands)

Succeeded Hashimu bin Ahmed and he also ruled after her. His successor died 1886.

18?? Embun Serin, The Undang Luak Inas of Inas (Malaysia)

The state which is also known as Jelai was one of nine minor states joined in the Negeri Sembilan Confederation

1807 - 1808 Ayse Seniyeperver Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Also known as Daulatlu Ismatlu Aisha Sina Parvar Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, she was mother of Mustafa IV (1807-08) and lived (1761-1828)

1808 - 1817 Politically Influential Naksh-i-Dil Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Advisor of her husband 1733-73 and for Sultan Selim III 1773-1789. Very powerful under reign of son, Mahmud II (1808-39), she lived (1768-1817).

1812 - 1819 Dowager Tengku Puteri Raja Hamidah binti Raja Haji of Johor (Malaysia)

Her husband, H.H. Sultan Mahmud III Shah Alam ibni al-Marhum Sultan 'Abdu'l Jalil Shah, Sultan of Johor and Pahang Dar ul-'Alam, died without naming a heir in 1811. It seems that Hamidah was one of the actors in the succession struggle, which resulted in her stepson, H.H. Sultan Husain Mu'azzam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Shah Alam, Sultan of Johor and Pahang Dar ul-'Alam, ascending the throne in 1819. She was daughter of Raja Haji bin Raja Chelak, 4th Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau, and (d. 1844)

1814 - 1824 H.H Karaeng Bontomasugi Sultana Siti Saleh II of Tallo (Indonesia)

Succeeded her father H.H. I-Mappainga Karaeng Lempangang Paduka Sri Sultan Safi ud-din and married to La Potto, Datu Baringang and Prince of Bone. Her ceremonial name was Tumenanga-ri-Kanatojenna

1814 - 1837 Politically Influential Badshah Begum of Oudh (Avadh) (India)

Her husband, Ghazi-ud-din Haider, preferred death for his son, Nasir-ud-din Haider, rather that his succession to the throne. Badshah Begum was childless. She, therefore, matched her husband's whim by having Nasir-ud-din's mother killed (another wife of Ghazi-ud-din), and by then adopting Nasir-ud-din. She brought up Nasir-ud-din as her own, and later took up arms against her husband. It was no ordinary confrontation. Badshah Begum had armed her women to the teeth, who, overpowered the King and sabotaged all his stratagems. The outcome was that Nasir-ud-din, did become the King of Avadh. When Nasir-ud-din later in his turn wanted to disinherit his son, Farid-un-Bakht, she took him under her wings, and refused to be threatened. Nasir-ud-din sent a brigade of women soldiers into the royal zenana to have her removed. The women of the zenana were no less armed so that a fierce battle took place with volleys of musket ammunition flying through Lucknow. The old Begum may have lost some fifteen or sixteen of her retainers, but the final victory was hers. She left the palace with a British guarantee that neither her life nor the life of the infant Farid-un-Bakht would ever be endangered again. In 1837 King Nasir-ud-din Haider died of poisoning. The British Resident had already drafted a paper ready for the signature of the next King of Avadh. But Badshah Begum wante Farid-un-Bakht to be king, and she marched at the head of some two hundred heavily armed men towards the Palace. Her troops removed the incumbent ruler and his relations. Her troops could hardly contain their zeal, or ignore the fiery leadership of their heavily covered Begum. The following day the British opened fire and most of the Begum's men were killed or wounded, and she were sent to the fort of Chunar which was in British territory, where both she and Farid-un-Bakht died in captivity. (d. 1846).

1815 - ca. 1856 Sultan Dewa Aung Isteri Kaina of Indragiri (Indonesia)

The region is also called "Land of thousand ditches". This name pictures that most of the areas consist of wetland, rives streams and swamps. And small ditches, plotting the coconut plantation land which is the vegetation of the local people. Inhil community in general is of Malay culture. Nevertheless, there are also outsiders in this area from Banjar and Bugis ethnics. These outsiders then settling one generation to another, and producing a cultural form which is the combination of Riau Malay culture and Banjar and Bugis culture.

1815 - ca. 1856 Dewa Aung Isteri Kania of Klungkung (Indonesia)

1849 - ca. 1856 Susuhuna (Empress) of Bali and Lombok

The latter was a title given to the Klungkung rulers by the Dutch colonial powers

1819 - 1838 Rani Mariambe Adi Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

Succeeded mother, Junumabe Adi-Raja Bibi II. In 1824 she made a formal written recognition of the suzerainty of the East India Company over the Island of Minicoy, which her mother had been forced to transfer in 1790. She and her successors, however, continued the tributary arrangement. Mariabe was succeeded by daughter, Rani Hayashabe, who was first succeeded by son and in 1907 her daughter, Imbichi, ascended to the throne.

1819 - 1844 Regent Dowager Begum Kudsiyya Begum of Bhopal (India)

After the death of her husband, Mawab Nazar Mohammad Khan, she became regent for daughter, Sikandar. After she ascended to the throne, she continued to guide and counsel her daughter. It was her aim to demonstrate that a Muslim woman could rule as effectively as any man. She abandoned the wail, learnt to ride and led her forces in combat. She had a difficult relationship with the British, recognizing the importance of maintaining good relations with them, but the other hand she resented their inference in her government. Also know as HH Qusida Begum Sahiba or Princess Qudsia, she lived (1801-81).

1819 - 1856 Politically influential Subadar Nawwab of Oudh (India)

Very powerful during the reign of Abul Mozaffar, and that of his son Soleyman (1827-37), his son Ali (1837-42), his son Amjad Ali (1842-47) and finally during the reign of Wajid Ali, who was deposed in 1856, and died 1887.

1823 - 1835 H.H. I-Mani Ratu Sultana Salima Rajiat ud-din, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Styled Arung Data before her accession. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Kassi, she was unmarried and succeeded by brother, La Mapaseling Sultan Adam Nazim ud-din .

1825 - 1837 Regent Dowager Nawab Sardar Bibi Sahiba of Radhanpur (India)

After the death of her husband H.H. Nawab Sher Khan Sahib Bahadur (1794-1813-25), she was regent for her infant stepson H.H. Nawab Muhammad Zorawar Khan Sahib Bahadurn (1822-25-74).

Around 1828 Chief Sheha Mwana wa Mwana of Tumbai (North Zanzibar)

Also known as Khadija bint Nwale, she succeeded father as Sheik of the state in North Zanzibar. Married to Hassan II of Zanzibarwho reigned before 1828 until 1845. Her successor reigned until 1856.

1831 - 1841 Regent Nawab Yamuna Bibi Sahiba of Balasinor (India)

After the death of her husband, Nawab Shri Jalal [Edul Khan] Sahib Bahadur, she was regent for son Nawab Shri Zorawar Khan Sahib Bahadur.

1833 - 1840 Ruler 'Aisha of Tuggurt (Algeria)

Also known as Aichouch, she succeeded Sultan 'Ali IV bin al-Kabir as ruler of a Berber state in the south of the country. Succeded by 'Abd ar-Rahman.

1838 - 1852 Rani Hayashabe Adi Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

Succeeded mother, Rani Mariambe, and first succeeded by son. In 1907 her daughter, Imbichi, ascended to the throne.

Until 1838 Rani Regnant Singhasari Cokorda of Karang Asem Singhasari (Indonesia)

Until 1827 she reigned jointly with Gusti Gede Jelantik Sasak, 1827-35 with Gusti Ngurah Made Karang Asem and finally with Gusti Ngurah Bagus Pañji Karang Asem until 1838.

1839 - 1851 (†) Governor Weyzero Elleni of Hamasen (Eritrea)

Murdered together with grandsons in the fighting with the Emperor of Ethiopia.

1839 - 1853 Bezmrâlem Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Also known as Daulatlu Ismatlu Bazim-i Alam Validi Sultan 'Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, she was mother of Abdülmecid I (1839-61) and lived (1807-52)

1842 - 1867 and 1871 - 1878 Sultan Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane of Mwali/Mohéli (Comoro Islands)

Succeeded her father, Ramanetaka, cousin of Radama I of Madagascar, who conquered Mwali. Also known as Reketaka Jombe Sudy or Djoumbé Soudi or Djoumbé Fatouma . Jumbe Fatimah was married two times and was deposed by the French Colonial powers in 1867 but was reinstalled and ruled until her death. She lived (1837-78)

1842 - 1851 Regent Dowager Sultan Rovao of Mwali/Mohéli (Comoro Islands)

Reigned in the name of daughter together with her second husband, Tsivandini

1844 - 1849 Regent Begum H.H. Sikander Begum Sahiba of Bhopal (India)
1859 - 1868 Nawab Begum Regnant

Had been proclaimed Reigning Begum at the age of 15 months in 1819 under the regency of her mother, Begum Quisada, who resigned in 1844, and on a special Dunbar conveyed in Bhopal, the British Political Agent, J.D. Cunningham, read out a proclamation from the Governor-General that Sikander would be the sole regent and exercise full executive powers on behalf of her 9 year old daughter, Shahjehan. She was the most aggressive, dynamic and charismatic. She rode, played polo, went tiger hunting and was an expert swordswoman. She reorganized the army, whose commander she was. She backed the winning horse in the 1857 mutiny and became the star of several British Dunbars held for Indian rulers. She was a devout Muslim but did not take the veil, but was the first Indian ruler to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca. She had separated from her husband, Gahangir Muhammad, who had been titular ruler, after a short period. She lived (1818-68).

1844 - 1859 H.H. Nawwab Sultan Shah Jahan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)
1868 - 1901 Nawab Begum Regnant

In 1844 she was proclaimed titular ruler of the state under the regency of her mother, Sikander Begum, in whose favour she abdicated. At a Dunbar held 17 day’s after her mother, Sikander Begum’s death in 1868, she was crowned Begum of Bhopal for the second time in her life. At the ceremony the British Agent of the Governor-General declared that her daughter, Sultan Jahan, would be heiress apparent. Shahjehan’s husband…became titular Nawab, and she tried to leave as much as the governing to him as possible, but he came at odds with the British, and was stripped of his title and position. During most of her reign, she was at odds with Sultan Jahan, and died without them being reconciled. She was interested in culture and an accomplished poet, and lived (1838-1901).

1848 - 1873 Politically Influential Maleka Jahan Khanum of Persia

Her official name was H.M The Mahd-i-'Aliua, also spelled Mahd-e Olia, "Sublime Cradle," she was grand-daughter of Fath 'Ali Shah, who was shah (1797-1834), wife of her cousin Mohammad Shah (1834-48) and mother of Nasser-ed-Din Shah (1848-96). She was one of the strongest women of the Qajar (Kadjar) Dynasty. Wielding her power from the Harem, once her son ascended the throne of Persia. She ensured the strengthening and survival of the Qajar nobility against the rivalries by commoners elevated to positions of prominence as a result of policies of successive Qajar (Kadjar) Shahs. She is characterized as an accomplished and cunning woman of some political gifts, strong personality, and characterized the undercurrent of matriarchy in the Qajar elite. She lived (1805-73)

Around 1850 Reigning Tsarina Kurmandjan Datka of Alay (Kirgistan)

Also known as Kurmanjan Mamatbai Kyzy, or Alai Queen, she was an outstanding leader of Kyrgyz nation. She had refused to live with the husband she was forced to marry and ruled the country alone when her second husband died, during the gloomy time of feudal despotism she could maintain a free spirit of independent nomad's life, traditional way living and Kyrgyz culture in Alay region. She was respected by all the foreign rulers she met during her reign, even by Kokand Khan – guardian of Muslim norms. At that time, it was considered astounding that a woman could govern such a huge territory as the Fergana valley. After the Kyrgyz territory was annexed by Russia in 1876, she continued the resistance movement. She lived (1811-1907)

1857 - 1860 Regent H.H. Panchai-tana I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara Sultana Um ul-Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa of Bone (Indonesia)
1860 - 18?? Datuk of Supa (Akataparang)

Also known as Basse Kajuwara Hadie Abel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseempa, she was widow of her cousin, H.H. La Parenringi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad Saleh Muhi ud-din, and regent for her infant son La Pamadanuka until his death. She was daughter of her husband's uncle, La Tan-ri suki, Arung Kajuwara, by his wife, the Adatuwang of Sawito. She was formerly styled Arung Kajuwara and succeeded her mother's brother as reigning Datuk of Supa, where she was succeeded by the female ruler, Datuk Madallung, who reigned until 1902.

1858 - 1859 Arumponi Regnant Bassee Kajuwara Hadie Abdel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseemba of Bone (Indonesia)

Succeeded by Ahmad Singkarru Rukka Arung Palakka, who reigned until 1871.

1858 - 1859 Queen Basse Kajuwara Hai-de Abdel Haide Pelai-e’engie Paseempa of Celebes at the Moluccas (Indonesia)

Today the island is called Sulawesi Selatan. Among the many ethnic groups are the seafaring Bugis dominates the southern part, whereas the northern part is inhabited by the Torajas whose unique culture rivals that of Balinese. Famed for their seafaring heritage and Pinisi Schooners for centuries, the Bugis posses to the present day one of the last sailing fleets in the world. The Bugis vessels have sailed to as far as the Australian coast, leaving behind drawing of their ships on stone with words that have been integrated into the Aboriginal language of North Australia.

1861 - 1902 Adatuwang We Tan-ri-Paderang Bau Jella of Alita (Indonesia)

Succeeded Aru Anipong and was succeeded by La Pangorisang - both male rulers. Daughter of H.H. La Parenrengi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad Saleh, Arumpone of Bone and I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara hadi Abel Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa, Datu of Supa - daughter of La Tan ri Suki, Arung of Kajuwara. We Tan-ri was married to H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Husain ibnu Sultan Muhammad Idris, Sultan of Gowa (1895-1906)

1861 - 18?? Al Sitt Bader Amin al-Din of the Druze in Lebanon

Became acting leader of the Druze Tribe after her husband, Said Beik Jumblatt had tried to reestablish the leadership of the Jumblatts, but was accused of fueling sectarian conflict between the Druze and the Maronites by the Ottomans, who sentenced him to life in prison, where he died of tuberculosis. The leadership afterwards went to her son Nassib. Said's other son, Najib, who managed to win over the Ottomans, who gave him the esteemed title of Pasha and appointed him governor of the Shouf in 1884.

1861 - 1876 Pertherhiyal Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Mother of Murad, and as Sultan Valide she was in some aspects considered joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire

1868 - 1876 Regent Dowager Queen Warqito Mastawat of Walo (Ethiopia)

She was mother of the young Imam Amede Beshir, one of the two claimants to the leadership of the Weresek (Mammadoch) clan of Wollo. Emperor Tewodros had seized Amede Beshir, had him baptized as his godson, and had fought the mother of the other claimant, the rival Queen Mestawat. Although bitter rivals, both Mestawat and Werqitu were foes of the Emperor. Werqitu was not initially eager to help the Shewan prince even though his father had been a close ally. She initially decided to send emissaries to the Emperor to inform him that the Shewans were in her camp, and that she would exchange them for her son. Tewodros however was extremely furious when he found out about the escape of the Shewans. Her son died during the siege, and her grief and anger knew no bounds. Until the very end, she never stopped attacking Tewodros' army, and never held back aid from anyone who rebelled against him.

1869 - 1872 Regent Tengku Intan binti Tengku Alang Husain, Tunku Ampuan of Negri Sembilan (Malaysia)

Regent for son, H.H. Tuanku Antah ibni al-Marhum Raja Radin Sunnah, Yang di-Pertuan of Sri Menanti, who was elected as ruler on the death of his uncle in 1869.

1870 - 1886 Adatuwang Regnant Pasule Daeng Bulaeng of Sawito (Indonesia)

Married La Tan-ri Suki, Arung Kajaura, Prince of Bone. Her daughter I-Basse Tan-ri Waru Kajuwara Hadi Abel Hadi Pelaiengi Pasimpa was regent for her infant son, the Sultan of Bone, before succeeding Pasule's brother as Datu of Supa in 1860. Pasule was succeeded in Sawito by the male ruler Palagau Aru Patojo, who reigned until 1902.

1871 - 1895 H.H. I-Banri Sultana Siti Fatima, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Styled Arung Timurung and Datu Chitta before she succeeded her father, Ahmad Singkarru Rukka Arung Palakka. She married I-Magulaga Karaeng Popo, Prince of Gowa (d. 1902), whose mother was I-Tenri Pada Sultana Siti Aisha [Besse-Barru], Arung of Barru, daughter of To' Patarai Sumanga Rukka, Arung of Barru. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Bola Mapare, and she was succeeded by her half-brother. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Bola Mapare, and mother of a son and a daughter, and (d. 1895).

1872 - 1873 and 187? - 18?? Sultan Singa Madi Jimba Aicha of M'Bude (Comoro Islands)

In 1873 she was taken as a captive to Itsandra. As she was however treated well and even married Mussafubu it is possible that she has continued to be Sultan in Name. In this case her successor, Jumbe Boina Fumu, was possibly only a kind of governor. In 1880 she submitted to Saidi Ali of the Comoros. She was succeeded by Jema Niema bint Jumbe Fumu at a not known date.

1873 - 1901 Guerilla Leader "Ibu Perbu" Tjoet Njak Dien in Aceh (Indonesia)

"Ibu Perbu" means Queen, and in 1862 she married Teuku Ibrahim Lamnga. In 1873 Her father and husband joined the fight against the Dutch, and she followed them into the jungle. After both her father and husband was killed and the Indonesian forces defeated by the Dutch, Dien took over both her late husband’s and father’s army commands and led them in guerilla warfare Her second husband was Teuku Umar, who was another relative. They led the two armies into a series of successful assault missions. In 1899 Dien’s husband was killed in battle, and she was again left to lead the rebel army alone, and retreated further into the jungle. She continued to lead the fight until the army was destroyed in 1901. One of her followers, Pang Laot Ali, felt sorry for Dien’s condition, hoped that the Dutch might give medical treatment for her. He deserted to the Dutch and bought the Dutch army into Dien’s camp in Beutong Le Sageu. They were completely caught by surprise and fought to the last man and woman except for Gambang and Dien. Only due to her blindness was Dien captured and even then she held a rencong (a traditional Acehnese dagger) in her hand trying to fight the enemy. Her daughter Gambang, however escaped deep into the jungle, where it is known that she continued the resistance until her death, which is believed to have taken place in 1910. She spend the rest of her life teaching the Koran in Sumedang, West Java. She lived (1848-1908). In 1964 she was declared a National Hero.

1876 - 1887 Perestü Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Mother Abdülhamid II (1876-1909), she was the last Valide Sultan and theoretical joint ruler.

1878 - 18?? Regent Warquito Mastawat of Gera Walo (Ethiopia)

Regent for chief Muhammad Ala, who became Ras Mika'el in 1878. The boarder state was incorporated into Ethiopia in 1896.

Around 1884 Sultan Mzade Badgini binti Munké Mwembwani of Badgini (Comoro Islands)

Succeeded Umam wa Dari, who reigned (1852-84) and was succeeded by Khadija.

ca. 1884, 1884 - 1887 and 1887 - ca. 1888 Sultan Khadija binti Mugné Mku of Badgini (Comoro Islands)

It is not clear what happened to her after Hachimu bin Mugne Mku seized power in 1885, After he had been driven out in 1887, she was first arrested but later reinstalled as Sultane by Saidi Ali of the Comoros and French. Later she is known to have been in exile in 1888 and to have joined Hachimu the following year. (d. 1889)

1885 - 1902 Sultan Aisya of Indragiri (Indonesia)

Succeeded by sultan Mahmud

1888 - 1894 Regent Queen Mother Regnant Njapdungke of Bamum (Cameroon)

Also known as Setfon or Nazabidunke. Initially regent for her son, Ibrahum Njoya, who was Fon of Bamun 1888-1923, in 1918 he also became sultan of Fumban, he was deposed in 1923, and lived (1885-1933). After he took over the reigns himself she became his closest advisor. Bamun was under indirect colonial rule by the Germans. She (d. 1913)

1888 - 1889 Regent Princess Balia of Mwali (Mohéli) (Comoro Islands)

Member of a regency council for the absent Sultan Salima.

1888 - 1906 Regent Rajah Putri of Magindanao (The Philippines)

Daughter of Sultan Qudaratullah Muhammad Jamalul Azam or simply Sultan Untong and maried Datu Utto or Sultan Anwaruddin Utto of Buayan, who also maneuvered to be declared jointly as Sultan of Maguindanao. Openly, he was supporting the bid of his brother-in-law, Datu Mamaku, brother of Rajah Putri to become the new Sultan of Maguindanao. But the Spaniards opposed his inclination vehemently, and Rajah Putri became the ruler of the state.

1893 - 1894 Sultan Mugalula of Nyamwezi at Zanzibar (Tanzania)

Abdicated as Sultan of Nyamwezi the same year. Abdicated as sultan and was succeeded by daughter Abd Msavila II in Nyamwezi, who also abdicated.
1895 Sultan Abd Msavila II of Nyamwezi (Tanzania)
Daughter of Sultana Mugalula, who reigned 1893-95 Msavila abdicated and was succeeded by Chief and sultan Katugamoto, who was deposed in 1898.

1895 - 1996 Reigning Umugabekazi Nyirauhi V Kanjogera of Rwanda
1896 - ca. 1916 Regent
1916 - 1931 Reigning Umugabekazi

Became Umugabekazi (Queen Mother) by the death of her husband King Kigeri IV Rwabigi and twice acted as regent for her son Yuhi V wa Musinga (1896-31). Rwanda was a Belgian colony at the time.

To Part 1 (7 - 17 centuries)
: http://hojja-nusreddin.livejournal.com/3072042.html
Tags: власть, гендер, государство, женщина, ислам, история, лидер

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