Ходжа Н. (hojja_nusreddin) wrote,
Ходжа Н.

Operation Gladio

Operation Gladio (Italian: Operazione Gladio) is the codename for a clandestine NATO "stay-behind" operation in Europe during the Cold War.
Its purpose was to continue anti-communist actions in the event of a Soviet invasion and conquest. Although Gladio specifically refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organizations, "Operation Gladio" is used as an informal name for all stay-behind organizations, sometimes called "Super NATO".
The name Gladio is the Italian form of gladius, a type of Roman shortsword.

Operating in many NATO and even some neutral countries, Gladio was part of a series of national operations first coordinated by the Clandestine Committee of the Western Union (CCWU), founded in 1948.
After the creation of NATO in 1949, the CCWU was integrated into the Clandestine Planning Committee (CPC), founded in 1951 and overseen by SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe), transferred to Belgium after France’s official withdrawal from NATO's Military Committee in 1966 – which was not followed by the dissolution of the French stay-behind paramilitary movements.

The role of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in sponsoring Gladio and the extent of its activities during the Cold War era, and its relationship to right-wing terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy during the "Years of Lead" (late 1960s to early 1980s) and other similar clandestine operations is the subject of ongoing debate and investigation.
Italy, Switzerland and Belgium have had parliamentary inquiries into the matter.


1 Origins

2 General stay-behind structure
2.1 European Parliament resolution concerning Gladio

3 Allegations
3.1 Gladio's strategy of tension and internal subversion operations

4 Gladio operations in NATO countries
4.1 First discovered in Italy
4.1.1 Giulio Andreotti's October 24, 1990 revelations
4.1.2 2000 Parliamentary report: a "strategy of tension"
4.1.3 General Maletti's testimony concerning alleged CIA involvement
4.1.4 A quick chronology of Italy's "strategy of tension" 1964 Piano Solo 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing 1970 Golpe Borghese 1972 Gladio meeting May 31, 1972 Peteano massacre November 23, 1973 Bombing of the plane Argo 16 1974 Piazza della Loggia bombing, Italicus Express massacre, and arrest of Vito Miceli, chief of the Army intelligence service and member of P2, on charges of "conspiracy against the state" 1977 Reorganization of Italian secret services following Vito Miceli's arrest 1978 Murder of Aldo Moro 1980 Bologna massacre 1982 murder of General Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa, head of counter-terrorism October 24, 1990 Giulio Andreotti’s acknowledgement of Operazione Gladio 1998 David Carrett, officer of the U.S. Navy
4.1.5 The DSSA, another Gladio?
4.2 Belgium
4.3 France
4.4 Denmark
4.5 Germany
4.5.1 The 1980 Oktoberfest terror attack
4.5.2 CIA's documents released in June 2006
4.5.3 Norbert Juretzko's 2004 revelations
4.6 Greece
4.7 Netherlands
4.8 Norway
4.9 Portugal
4.10 Turkey
4.11 United Kingdom
4.11.1 General Serravalle's revelations
4.11.2 Column 88
4.11.3 The Guardian's November 1990 revelations concerning plans under Margaret Thatcher

5 Parallel stay-behind operations in non-NATO countries
5.1 Austria
5.2 Cyprus
5.3 Finland
5.4 Spain
5.5 Sweden
5.6 Switzerland

6 FOIA requests and US State Department's 2006 communiqué
7 Politicians on Gladio
8 Books
9 Films
10 Gladio in Fiction
11 Literature
12 See also
13 References
14 External links
15 Bibliography
Tags: американа, война, европа, тайна

  • Post a new comment


    Anonymous comments are disabled in this journal

    default userpic

    Your reply will be screened

    Your IP address will be recorded